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Tim Abel
St. Lawrence Iroquoians in Northern New York: An Update of Present Research
Session 1a: The Huron-Wendat Nation and St. Lawrence Iroquoians: Their Origins and Relations
Saturday Oct. 18 Morning - 11:00-11:20 - Burgundy North
For over a century and a half, archaeologists have pondered the numerous Iroquoian settlements in Jefferson and St. Lawrence Counties, New York.  A flurry of early excavations in the early 20th led to little more than basic understandings about their identity and culture. Modern systematic excavations have been conducted at only a handful of the sites.  Despite this, an inventory and seriation of the sites was only accomplished in the 1980s. Questions about subsistence and settlement have only begun to be explored. Site chronology is still poorly documented. Theories about their prehistoric origins and fate at the interface of history remain to be tested. This paper summarizes past and present research on these important research questions.
Jennifer Birch
Towns, Nations, and Analogs of the Early State: Northern Iroquoian Geopolitics ca. 1450-1650
Session 1b: The Huron-Wendat Nation and St. Lawrence Iroquoians: Their Origins and Relations
Saturday Oct. 18 Afternoon - 02:20-02:40 - Burgundy North
This paper reviews current knowledge about the formation of Iroquoian towns, nations, and confederacies in the fifteenth through seventeenth centuries A.D. During the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries A.D. processes of settlement aggregation, migration, and geopolitical realignment galvanized Iroquoian communities into formative nations as they met the social, political, and economic challenges of coalescence. The common classification of Iroquoian settlements as ‘villages’ is challenged, and an argument presented that settlements were large, focal nodes in the landscape, better conceptualized as towns. Towns were organized and managed by male and female representatives of clan segments who developed complex, consensual power structures which were articulated within Nations and the Wendat Confederacy. Finally, this paper draws upon alternatives to social evolution to argue that Iroquoian confederacies should be considered analogues of complex chiefdoms, and perhaps incomplete analogs of the early state.
Alan Brunger
Champlain's Maps and Later French Mapping of the Peterborough Area
Session 2b: An Overview of the Work of Samuel de Champlain, the French, and the First Nations in Ontario
Saturday Oct. 18 Afternoon - 02:20-02:40 - Burgundy South
This presentation is part of the Trent Valley Archive’s ‘Champlain 400 Project’, the overall intention of which is to raise the awareness locally of the history and legacy of French society in the Peterborough area, commencing with the journeys and observations of Samuel de Champlain in 1615. Secondary sources form the main basis for the presentation although reference will be made to historical documents, chiefly maps.
Much of the work done on the subject of early mapping of New France is by Dr. Conrad Heidenreich. His work provides the basis for my remarks in the most part. He has studied the Champlain surveys and compared them with modern knowledge.
Champlain’s maps are small scale and embrace much of northeastern North America and early New France. The information on topographic and cultural features is necessarily restricted. Subsequent maps were published at varying scales although none at large scale.
Brian Charles
Atelier sur la confection de wampum
Session 4: Contributed Papers on the Archaeology of Northeastern North America
Sunday Oct. 19 Morning - 10:40-11:00 - Burgundy South
Brian Charles is an off-Reserve Band Member of the Chippewas of Georgina Island, born in Toronto and currently residing along the northwest shore of Lake Simcoe in Hawkestone, ON. The redevelopment of an archive of wampum belts related to Anishinaabe history was born out of a collective research and commemoration project to honour the ancestors of the Chippewas of Lakes Huron & Simcoe that served in the War of 1812 as Allies of the Crown. He will present details of this project.
Time: 10:40-12:20
Caitlin Coleman, Alexis Dunlop, and Claire van Nierop
Ontario Exhibitionists: Modern Approaches to Sharing Our Heritage
Session 5: Posters
Friday Oct. 17 Afternoon - 04:30-06:00 - Burgundy South
While museums provide spaces for the display of artifacts from their local communities, there are many other ways that Ontario’s archaeological heritage can be shared with the public.  CRM companies are at the forefront of finding innovative ways to share collections with a broader audience.  Our unique role in the heritage sector allows for freedom to think outside tradition museum settings.  At ASI, as one of our core values is the dissemination of knowledge and whenever possible, we aim to share our work with the world. We have developed displays for unconventional spaces; such as an exhibit geared towards children in an elementary school, a display outside of a hotel in downtown Toronto showing the history of the site, and a display about Toronto’s first hospital in the TIFF Bell Lightbox building. We have also shared our work through interactive activities; such as bus tours, bike tours, Doors Open events, and school talks. ASI has invested in a digital platform with a modern, interactive website, blog, and daily curated social media sites.
Looking to the future, as CRM professionals, we want to stay at the forefront of new techniques for sharing our collections. We will examine some case studies of other successful heritage programming that has occurred outside Ontario, as inspiration for new avenues we can explore in public engagement.
John Creese
Archaeology of the Wendat Diaspora
Session 3: Emerging Multi-disciplinary Themes and Trends on the Wendat Past
Sunday Oct. 19 Morning - 10:40-11:00 - Burgundy North
Between 1648 and 1652 the Wendat communities of southern Ontario dispersed from their traditional homelands. While a great deal of archaeological research has been directed toward understanding Wendat culture and lifeways prior to this event, very little attention has been given to the post-diaspora period. This paper will examine what is currently known about Wendat community relocations in the decades immediately following 1650, with a focus on archaeological evidence for Wendat settlements in the upper Great Lakes and among the Haudenosaunee. With this overview in mind, I will discuss the problems and prospects of developing an archaeology of the Wendat diaspora.
Katherine Davidson
The Ossuary Tradition among the Wendat and the Haudenosaunee
Session 5: Posters
Friday Oct. 17 Afternoon - 04:30-06:00 - Burgundy South
With the growth of urban centres in Southern Ontario, many new pre-contact village sites are being uncovered and excavated - as many as 50 in the last two decades alone, or two to three sites annually. Given the essential role that ancestor veneration plays in First Nations culture, such discoveries almost inevitably involve handling the remains of individuals buried at these sites. Archaeologists have a duty to respect the deceased and the communities they come from, by identifying their nation of origin and facilitating their reinterment, whether through protecting the site of origin as a burial ground, or by relocating the individuals to a safe place designated by their community of origin. This study presents a contrast of the Ossuary Tradition among two different cultural groups, the Wendat and the Haudenosaunee. It will examine the historical and archaeological evidence of this burial practice, as well as discuss the impact these discoveries have had on First Nations groups, heritage affairs, and politics in recent years.
Deirdre Elliott, Kaitlyn Malleau, Alicia Hawkins
In the Face of Adversity: Changing Wendat Foodways at the Ellery Site
Session 3: Emerging Multi-disciplinary Themes and Trends on the Wendat Past
Sunday Oct. 19 Morning - 09:00-09:20 - Burgundy North
Comparison of zooarchaeological remains from middens associated with two temporally separated occupations at the Wendat Ellery site shows variation in the nature and abundance of animals used. After comparing samples to rule out the possibility that differences arose from variation in burning or breakage, we conclude that there are real changes to the types of animals that Wendat people hunted and fished. There was a decrease in the relative amount of lake trout and whitefish over time as people turned to more local food sources, including perch, suckers, and rabbit. This trend may represent changes in the organization of labour in which some aspects of food procurement shifted from being the responsibility of large travelling parties to that of locally-oriented individuals or small groups. We suggest this is a response to the devastating effects of European-introduced diseases.
William Engelbrecht and Bruce Jamieson
Stone versus Bone and Antler Tipped Arrows and the Movement of the St. Lawrence Iroquoians from their Homeland
Session 1a: The Huron-Wendat Nation and St. Lawrence Iroquoians: Their Origins and Relations
Saturday Oct. 18 Morning - 11:20-11:40 - Burgundy North
The movement of the St. Lawrence Iroquoians away from their traditional homeland was likely due to multiple factors.  One that has not been considered is the possible advantage that lithic technology gave to enemies of the St. Lawrence Iroquoians.  One of the most striking differences between St. Lawrence Iroquoian assemblages and those of some other Iroquoian groups is the general absence of stone arrow points.  Could even slightly higher mortality rates for St. Lawrence Iroquoians over decades as a consequence of this technological difference have led to the weakening and ultimate movement of these populations from their homeland?   This paper considers the advantages and disadvantages of bone or antler versus stone tipped arrows.
Rudy Fecteau
An Archaeobotanical Look at Simcoe County
Session 2a: The Legacy of Conrad Heidenreich
Saturday Oct. 18 Morning - 10:40-11:00 - Burgundy South
From the time of Wintemberg in the 1940's to the present, sites from Simcoe County have yielded botanical information about the environment as well as native and domesticated plants used for food and other utilitarian purposes.  This paper proposes to illustrate and address information gleaned from various sites by different researchers during this time.
Neal Ferris
Of Legacies Wendat and Heidenreich: Continuities of Becoming
Session 2a: The Legacy of Conrad Heidenreich
Saturday Oct. 18 Morning - 10:20-10:40 - Burgundy South
One of the strongest influences Conrad Heidenreich has in shaping the understanding of the archaeology of the last 500 years in the Northeast is his insistence on questioning the conventional historical interpretations offered of the relationship and dynamic between Indigenous and European peoples from the first half of the 17th century. Using the same (and adding additional) historical records previously mined to support conventional interpretations of economic and trade good acquisition leading to cultural ruin and loss, Conrad saw more nuanced social stratagems for sustaining Indigenous peoples and nations through that time. These stratagems represented a continuity of becoming for the Wendat of Huronia, as well as for the other Iroquoian-speaking peoples of the region, rather than a discontinuity of loss. I argue Conrad’s interpretations much more readily align with the material patterns archaeology has documented for well before, during and well after the events of the early 17th century.
Rae Fleming
Champlain, Laidlaw and the Simcoe-Balsam Portage in 1615
Session 2b: An Overview of the Work of Samuel de Champlain, the French, and the First Nations in Ontario
Saturday Oct. 18 Afternoon - 03:00-03:20 - Burgundy South
The past really is a foreign country. . An intriguing aspect of the journeys of Champlain though the local area is the precise route followed on both his outward and return journey. His journal is the main basis for reconstructing this route apart from his map. Various scholars have theorized about this and will receive a brief consideration. In 1615, Samuel de Champlain, his 500 or so Hurons and dozen or so arquebusiers are assumed to have followed an old Native trail from Lake Simcoe to Balsam Lake. They may very well have done so, but the evidence is scarce. Champlain's journal offers an imprecise and brief description of the route, and his description of the first lake reached is equally vague. It was George Laidlaw, in the early 20th century, who, without much evidence, brought certainty to the route, right down to the precise location where the Champlain party entered Balsam Lake. A recent book on the Scugog Carrying Place suggests a different route, equally plausible. As with most historical events, it is difficult to know what exactly happened 1615.
Bill Fox
The Algonquins: Spectators or Mediators?
Session 1b: The Huron-Wendat Nation and St. Lawrence Iroquoians: Their Origins and Relations
Saturday Oct. 18 Afternoon - 02:00-02:20 - Burgundy North
A comprehensive survey of Late Woodland archaeological evidence from southeastern Ontario and adjacent Quebec is presented in an attempt to document the evolving relationship between Algonquian speaking groups and their Iroquoian neighbours to the east and west. Ethno-historic information is used to “anchor” this narrative, until the diaspora of 1650 A.D.
Charles Garrad
Champlain's Visit to the Petun or Tobacco Confederacy in 1616
Session 2b: An Overview of the Work of Samuel de Champlain, the French, and the First Nations in Ontario
Saturday Oct. 18 Afternoon - 02:00-02:20 - Burgundy South
Of all Champlain's expeditions and adventures his visit to the Petun or the Tobacco Confederacy in January 1616 might be considered to have been of little consequence. It failed to achieve any of its probable goals, but gave rise to very significant events later on in the decade. This paper explores probable routes and expansion of the fur trade and many other outcomes that resulted from the visit.
Christian Gates St-Pierre, Roland Tremblay, and Michel Plourde
Middle and Late Woodland Iroquoians in the St. Lawrence River Valley: An Occupational Overview
Session 1a: The Huron-Wendat Nation and St. Lawrence Iroquoians: Their Origins and Relations
Saturday Oct. 18 Morning - 09:40-10:00 - Burgundy North
At the time of contact with the first European explorers, the territory occupied by the St. Lawrence Iroquoians extended from the mouth of Lake Ontario to the Cap Tourmente area, near Quebec City, with a southward extension to the northern tip of Lake Champlain, as well as seasonal extensions into the estuary and gulf of St. Lawrence to the East. Diverse settlement-subsistence patterns have been documented along the shores of this large territory that can be segmented into varying numbers of sociopolitical provinces. The occupational history of those territories by St. Lawrence Iroquoians seems to have been continuous since at least the Middle Woodland period, but it is characterised by a series of complex and changing relations with neighbouring peoples. This paper will present an overview of those aspects of the Iroquoian and Proto-Iroquoian occupation of the St. Lawrence River valley during the Middle and Late Woodland period.
Mariane Gaudreau and Louis Lesage
Ethnicity and Cultural Affiliation from Huron-Wendat and Anthropological Perspectives
Session 1b: The Huron-Wendat Nation and St. Lawrence Iroquoians: Their Origins and Relations
Saturday Oct. 18 Afternoon - 03:40-04:00 - Burgundy North
Since its inception, archaeologists have had a strong interest in identifying ethnic groups in the past. However, the archaeological cultures constructed by archaeologists do not always overlap with actual ethnic groups and the ethnicity attributed to those past cultures sometimes conflict with Indigenous conceptions of cultural affiliations. This paper identifies Huron-Wendat conceptions of ethnicity and cultural affiliation to better understand how they conceive of their shared ancestry with the St. Lawrence Iroquoians. We then contrast the community’s perspectives with those of archaeologists first by discussing how ethnicity has previously been theorized by the discipline since the mid-20th century, and then by offering a critical assessment of current archaeological perspectives on the Huron-Wendat and St. Lawrence Iroquoians relationship. Our contribution is part of an attempt to reconcile oral history and archaeological interpretations and help to resolve long-standing issues relating to the identity of the St. Lawrence Iroquoians.
Bonnie Glencross, Neil Peterson, and Gary Warrick
The Beads of Ahatsistari: Mediums of Wendat and French Cross-cultural Exchange
Session 3: Emerging Multi-disciplinary Themes and Trends on the Wendat Past
Sunday Oct. 19 Morning - 09:40-10:00 - Burgundy North
Beads originating from archaeological contexts constitute rich data sets.  The focus of this presentation are the beads recovered during the 2014 Wilfrid Laurier University field school from Ahatsistari (Allen Tract site, BeGx-76), an early 17th century Wendat village on Tay Point, Ontario.  Eighty-two beads of glass, shell, bone and stone were recovered from 1 meter units sampled from seven midden locales, and identified using a modified version of the Kidd and Kidd (1970) system of classification.  While still preliminary, we argue that the bead collection demonstrates high frequencies of blue and white forms and is representative of GBP2 (ca 1600-1615 C.E.). We entertain the possibility that interactions and trade between the Wendat occupants of Ahatsistari, their Aboriginal neighbours and Europeans was intense, and that Ahatsistari is the historically referenced Carhagouha, principle town of the northern Attignawantan and an important site for trade with the French.
Michel Gros-Louis and Benoit Jacques
The Wendat Presence in Southern Ontario after the 1649 Dispersal
Session 3: Emerging Multi-disciplinary Themes and Trends on the Wendat Past
Sunday Oct. 19 Morning - 09:20-09:40 - Burgundy North
It has long been believed that after the 1649 dispersion, the Wendat no longer inhabited region of Ontario. However, the census of 1736 and that of 1763 includes Wendat people to the north of Lake Ontario. Study of toponyms reveals that villages which were situated in this area had Huron names. They were inhabited by Wendat who, hostile to missionaries, joined the Seneca, Cayuga and Oneida who already lived there, as well as those who rejoined them after the dispersal with the consequence that they had become the majority. Towards 1688, the Seneca of the north shore of Lake Ontario returned to the southern shore in a desire to regroup so as to better face the French. Those Wendat who had not married with the Seneca did not follow those who returned to the south, and instead moved their villages to interior locations for better security.  This paper will make use of linguistic and archaeological points of view to support the thesis that the Huron did not leave southern Ontario, and that they were still there during the founding of Toronto at the end of the eighteenth century.
Dan Harrison
The Crane, the Turtle, the Snake, and the Twilight of Wampum Diplomacy:  Tarhe, Mishikinawka and Anthony Wayne at Greenville, 1795
Session 3: Emerging Multi-disciplinary Themes and Trends on the Wendat Past
Sunday Oct. 19 Morning - 11:00-11:20 - Burgundy North
My discussion centers on an artifact in the collection of the Fort Meigs museum in Perrysburg, Ohio: a fragment of a wampum belt said to have been presented by the Miami Chief Mishikinawka (The Little Turtle) to General Anthony Wayne (known to the Miami as Black Snake) at the negotiations preceding the Treaty of Greenville in July, 1795. This crucial juncture in the proceedings has been depicted in a monumental painting (1945) in the Ohio capitol’s rotunda.  Through a textual analysis of the negotiations, and a survey of the use of wampum in the practice of diplomacy, I contend that the Fort Meigs belt was presented not by Mishikinawka, but by the Wyandot Chief Tarhe (The Crane).  A survey of patterns used in the creation of wampum belts used in diplomatic negotiations over the preceding 150 years indicates that the motifs observed in the Fort Meigs belt are consistent with established Iroquois/Haudenosaunee and Eastern Algonkian motifs with which the Wyandot would have been familiar.  The symbolism associated with these motifs permits its interpretation as a statement of the Wyandot Chief’s negotiating position, and the reconstruction of the complete belt as presented to Wayne. Finally, I argue that Mishikinawka is inaccurately represented in the 1945 painting, both in the design of the belt depicted and the meaning of the gesture, which was an act not of submission but defiance.  Though the Treaty of Greenville was successfully concluded, thanks to the skillful use of wampum diplomacy by the negotiators, Wayne included, it closes a chapter in Native American relations with Europeans and Americans in which indigenous practices were both utilized and respected on both sides.
John Hart, Jennifer Birch, Susan Dermarkar, Termeh Shafie, and Ron Williamson
St. Lawrence Iroquoians and Pan-Iroquoian Social Network Analysis
Session 1b: The Huron-Wendat Nation and St. Lawrence Iroquoians: Their Origins and Relations
Saturday Oct. 18 Afternoon - 01:40-02:00 - Burgundy North
How did Iroquoian populations in the St. Lawrence River valley interact with other populations in the valley and elsewhere in northern Iroquoia? How did these interactions change over time? Does such information allow us to make inferences about the dispersal of the St Lawrence Iroquoian outside of the valley in the 16th century? Here we use we use graphing and statistical network analysis to investigate these questions with a large dataset of similarity values for decorations on pottery collars from over 200 sites dating to ca. A.D. 1350 through 1650 and encompassing all of northern Iroquoia.
Alicia Hawkins, Suzanne Needs-Howarth, Michelle Courtemanche, Christian Gates St-Pierre
Screen mesh size and fish bone recovery on Iroquoian sites
Session 5: Posters
Friday Oct. 17 Afternoon - 04:30-06:00 -  Burgundy South
Recently, two of us (AH and SN) presented research about the perch fisheries on the north shore of Lake Ontario that ended up telling us more about taphonomy than about perch per se. What we unintentionally (but not unexpectedly) demonstrated is that assemblages recovered on 6.4 mm mesh are likely biased towards larger fish. We know from our own work on these and other assemblages – and from the international literature on taphonomy – that fish bone data are likely also biased in terms of species representation. Here we build on this research, using inter- and intra-dataset comparisons of zooarchaeological assemblages from a number of Iroquoian village sites in Ontario and Quebec. Zooarchaeological and stable isotope evidence indicate that for at least some of the people living in this area, fish were a major component of the diet. The fact that many of our zooarchaeological datasets are systematically biased due to recovery methods is therefore a real concern.
Conrad Heidenreich
A Brief Assessment of Champlain
Session 2a: The Legacy of Conrad Heidenreich
Saturday Oct. 18 Morning - 11:40-12:00 - Burgundy South
Champlain was born in early August 1574 in Brouage, Saintonge (Charente-Maritime), France. He was baptized a Huguenot with the name Samuel Chapeleau. When we first hear of him in 1595 his name was Samuel de Champlain, a fourier in Henri IVs army, a Catholic and royalist, convinced of the superiority of French cultural institutions, particularly religion and government. It is likely that he was one of the many illegitimate children of Henri IV.
Champlain was virtually unknown until after the mid-19th century, when Canada began to look for heroes and national role models. During that time he emerged as the “Father of New France” and “Founder of Québec.” He would have rejected these descriptions of himself. Late in life he wrote that his two major contributions were his maps and that he “prepared the way for others to follow him.” His outstanding characteristics were that he was convinced of a great future for Canada and was honourable and loyal to his superiors. He worked within the broad framework set by them and gave advice on how best to achieve their ends regarding exploration, settlement, Native relations and economic development. In working these out he was willing to adapt to the Canadian natural environment and to a large degree Native customs.
Those who have criticised his actions failed to understand the constraints under which he worked and failed to compare his actions to those in authority in the Protestant English and Dutch communities.
Douglas Hunter
Iroquet’s World
Session 2b: An Overview of the Work of Samuel de Champlain, the French, and the First Nations in Ontario
Saturday Oct. 18 Afternoon - 01:20-01:40 - Burgundy South
This paper will explore the role of the Anishinaabe leader Iroquet in extending Champlain's sphere of operations into the world beyond the Grand Sault at Montreal, and in particular in making the connection for Champlain with the Huron-Wendat. It will draw on Champlain's own writings as well as our current understandings of the trading relationships between Europeans in the St. Lawrence Valley and indigenous peoples beyond those rapids prior to Champlain's arrival. My intention is to have people read Champlain's accounts from a perspective from other than his own and see his experiences from a perspective of Anishinaabe initiative.
Jamie Hunter
Champlain's Truchements and the Development of the Early Fur Trade in Ontario
Session 2b: An Overview of the Work of Samuel de Champlain, the French and the First Nations in Ontario
Saturday Oct. 18 Afternoon - 01:40-02:00 - Burgundy South
This paper will describe Champlain’s problems controlling his monopoly of the fur trade after 1608 in the St. Lawrence Valley and the opportunity provided by many First Nations groups to exchange young men to formalize a trading alliance. These young men were sent into the interior to learn the language, culture and the economic opportunities offered by an expansion of the fur trade. Within ten years as the frontier moved further west these young men were employed by Champlain as Truchements. In this way these men became ambassadors, explorers, and coordinators with the Natives that were supposed to trade exclusively with Champlain’s companies at Montreal, Trois Riviere and Quebec City.
Stephen S. Israel and Wayne E. Clark
The Kirby Farm Site (18CR281), Carroll County, Maryland: A Middle and Late Woodland Hunting Quarter
Session 4: Contributed Papers on the Archaeology of Northeastern North America
Sunday Oct. 19 Morning - 09:40-10:00 - Burgundy South
Members of the Central Chapter, of the Archeological Society of Maryland, excavated five test squares at the Kirby Farm Site in an unplowed wooded grove, and narrow floodplain setting on the banks of the Big Pipe Creek, in the Taneytown vicinity, Carroll County, Maryland, in July 2014.   The floodplain site lies within an upland interior riverine setting located in the Middle Potomac Valley in the Monocacy River tributary drainage.  The archaeological material culture from the site is interpreted in a regional ethnohistorical and archaeological framework.  Few interior drainage sites in the Piedmont have produced unplowed components with ceramics.  The site was occupied during the end of the Middle Woodland and the first half of the Late Woodland periods.  Initial occupation was by families producing Hell Island ware of the Webb complex, dating to AD 700-1000.  The Webb complex bands that settled in the region, adopted corn as a cultivated food source and were producing Shepard Cord-Marked ware of the Montgomery complex (AD 1000-1450).  Interaction with Algonquian speaking groups in the Coastal Plain is evident by a single Rappahannock Incised vessel (AD 950-1300) of the Little Round Bay phase of the Townsend complex.  Two Shenks Ferry Incised vessels rim fragments date to the Blue Rock phase of the Shenks Ferry complex (AD 1300-1400).  The limited testing produced evidence useful for interpreting interior Piedmont drainage locations used for transient and seasonal hunting quarters of the Algonquian speaking Indians of the Chesapeake Bay drainage.
Elwood Jones
The French settlement and legacy in the Peterborough area
Session 2b: An Overview of the Work of Samuel de Champlain, the French, and the First Nations in Ontario
Saturday Oct. 18 Afternoon - 03:20-03:40 - Burgundy South
David Hackett Fischer's Champlain's Dream found focus in this region of lakes. Fischer noted that Champlain was tolerant of all cultures and he treated others as equals. By the middle of the 19th century, many Francophones had settled in the Peterborough area. The first wave of internal migration came up from Québec to work in logging the local forests during Peterborough’s lumber era. Eventually, French Canadian families moved to the growing town of Peterborough and the surrounding area where they found work tied to lumbering, farming, commerce and manufacturing. Their real estate ventures led to the emergence of French sectors in places such as Peterborough and Hastings. Their presence reinforced religious, political and cultural interaction, particularly over the first two generations.
Some businesses were operated by successive generations of French Canadians. French identity remained strong even as English became the dominant language in their group. Efforts to stimulate French language education in the area have resulted in the recent emergence of École Secondaire Jamot to serve the central Ontario region.
Patrick Julig and Gregory Beaton
Islands in the Sun: Human uses of Georgian Bay Islands from Middle Woodland to Historic times
Session 2a: The Legacy of Conrad Heidenreich
Saturday Oct. 18 Morning - 09:20-09:40 - Burgundy South
As isolated geographic entities islands may often hold special meanings or fascination to humans groups throughout history. This research will examine human uses of islands in Georgian Bay, from Middle Woodland to Historic times. The Middle Woodland Killarney Bay complex used strategically located islands for mortuaries as well as habitation sites, and possibly as trading areas. Large islands such as Manitoulin have evidence of use throughout the Holocene by all cultural groups and many site types and purposes, including quarries of chert, quartzite, and possibly pipestone. Smaller islands often have evidence of cache pits and stone lined pits and related features, and were often used for collecting eggs as well as fishing. Islands were also used for sanctuaries and retreats, (such as the Huron retreating to Christian Island, St. Marie II), and many island had hermits living on them in historic times. Early explorers reported that many islands along the North Shore had corn grown on them, possibly being less subject to animal pests, and with milder climates and longer growing conditions. The hypothesis of early (Pre-contact) horticulture of squash, tobacco, and possibly maize on select islands and coastal habitats by Algonquian groups such as the Odawa, Amikwa and others around Georgian Bay will be evaluated.
Mima Kapches
An Interesting and Long Career: The Legacy of Conrad Heidenreich
Session 2a: The Legacy of Conrad Heidenreich
Saturday Oct. 18 Morning - 08:40-09:00 - Burgundy South (Begins: 8:50)
This presentation is an introduction to the career of Professor Conrad E. Heidenreich. There will be emphasis on informing the audience of his academic history in relation to the Wendat, the French (in particular Champlain) and the geography of Simcoe County, Huronia.
Kathryn Labelle
Daughters of Aataentsic: A Case Study in Community-Guided Research
Session 3: Emerging Multi-disciplinary Themes and Trends on the Wendat Past
Sunday Oct. 19 Morning - 08:40-09:00 - Burgundy North
My current manuscript project, "Daughters of Aataenstic", explores the lives of seven Wendat women throughout colonial North America (1650-2006). It seeks to address historical questions concerning matricentric societal shifts, patriarchal policies and Indigenous feminism. Of particular note are the strategies implemented by these women to combat colonialism. This project is committed to a methodology rooted in community-guided research and outreach. It is the product of a collaborative process led by an advisory council of Lounghouse Women from the four modern Wendat communities (located in Ontario, Quebec, Oklahoma and Kansas). My presentation will outline this process, highlighting the numerous positive results for both researchers and communities.
Marti Latta
The Warminster Site, 1615
Session 2a: The Legacy of Conrad Heidenreich
Saturday Oct. 18 Morning - 09:40-10:00 - Burgundy South
Three distinct ethnic groups have been identified at the Warminster Site, BdGv-1. One population is Huron-Wendat, similar in culture to other sites in eastern Huronia. A 17th century French presence is identified through personal, non-trade items. This research looks at the third group which previous researchers have overlooked and asks: who were these people and why were they at the Warminster Site in 1615?
Louis Lesage
Introduction and framing of the questions
Session 1a: The Huron-Wendat Nation and St. Lawrence Iroquoians: Their Origins and Relations
Saturday Oct. 18 Morning - 08:40-09:00 - Burgundy North
Session Introduction by the Chair
Rob MacDonald
Cultural Ecology and Land-use Trends of the Huron-Wendat and St. Lawrence Iroquoians
Session 1a: The Huron-Wendat Nation and St. Lawrence Iroquoians: Their Origins and Relations
Saturday Oct. 18 Morning - 09:20-09:40 - Burgundy North
The development of any culture history narrative from the archaeological record must address the strategies whereby groups of related communities adapted to their natural and cultural environments. Since the processes of adaptation tend to be highly integrated, establishing baselines of independent variables, such as parameters of the natural environment, is an important first step. It is also important to distinguish between relatively static variables such as soils versus variables such as climate which may have been in flux over the period under investigation. Dependent variables, such as strategies to access key resources, can then be considered and an explanatory narrative developed. In this paper, we explore the cultural ecology of the Huron-Wendat and St. Lawrence Iroquoians as a basis for understanding the environmental opportunities and constraints which may have influenced settlement and land-use trends in the centuries leading up to European contact.
Ramsay Macfie
Interpreting Anomalous Feature Clusters and Fire-cracked Rock at the Davidson Site in Southwestern Ontario
Session 4: Contributed Papers on the Archaeology of Northeastern North America
Sunday Oct. 19 Morning - 09:00-09:20 - Burgundy South
The Davidson Site (AhHk-54) in Southwestern Ontario continues to yield a wealth of information about the Late Archaic period in the Great Lakes Region.  Excavations have shown the site to contain the well-preserved remains of pit-houses and other structures, as well as vast numbers of pits of varying description, including storage and refuse features.  This research focuses on the interpretation of two enigmatic clusters of overlapping pit-features, both of which have been tentatively dated to the Small Point Late Archaic of ca. 3,200-2,600 BP.   Relatively shallow, basin-shaped proflies characterize the pits that form these clusters.  Their contents are dominated by concentrations of fire-cracked rock (FCR) of material types that are not local to the immediate site environs.  This presentation discusses the preliminary results of attempts to interpret these FCR through basic analyses of their spatial distribution, material sourcing and selectivity, attempts at refitting FCR, and their replication through experimentation with ethnographically recorded hot-rock cooking technology.  Similar clusters of pit-features with high numbers of associated FCR have been recorded as a characteristic of Late Archaic sites in the Great Lakes region, and have been described variously as earth ovens, hearths, and roasting pits, as well as general refuse and storage features.  While these descriptions can be useful in aiding site interpretations, their classifications often go untested, and the conspicuously present FCR remain virtually unrecognized as cultural material.  The analyses presented here may serve to test the potential analytical value of fire-cracked rock in the Late Archaic in the Great Lakes Region.
Katelyn Mather
Recent Archaeological Investigations into the Toronto Carrying Place Trail
Session 5: Posters
Friday Oct. 17 Afternoon - 04:30-06:00 - Burgundy South
The Toronto Carrying Place Trail was an important portage route, used to bypass the un-navigable Humber River and link what is now known as Lake Ontario to Lake Simcoe. This trail was an ancient highway, used for hundreds, perhaps thousands of years, until John Graves Simcoe ordered the construction a new military route –Yonge Street – and the trail was abandoned, and ploughed over into extensive farmlands used to feed the burgeoning settlement of York (now the City of Toronto). This poster presentation will focus on the history of the trail, both before and after the arrival of Europeans into the region. I will also present the recent archaeological investigations into a nearly 200-hectare parcel of land in the City of Vaughan; a property that the Toronto Carrying Place Trail would likely have once crossed. The evidence of pre-contact activities in the study area, in particular, will be examined.
André Miller
Settlements through Time: Archaeological Investigations at Opemican Park, 2014-2015
Session 5: Posters
Friday Oct. 17 Afternoon - 04:30-06:00 - Burgundy South
In 2014 GRAO Consultants en archéologie (GRAO) was mandated by the SÉPAQ to perform various archaeological studies in Opémican national park territory in anticipation of the upcoming implementation of the infrastructure of the park. Pointe Opémican is currently occupied by several industrial and domestic buildings and remains of a post house for floating wood dating from the 19th and 20th centuries, the site was classified national heritage site by the Quebec government in 1983. Archaeological work in 2014 and 2015 were designed to identify areas of cultural heritage sites of archaeological potential and to conduct surveys and works. Besides buildings and historical remains visible on the surface, archaeological work in 2014 confirmed the existence of remains buried in more than one sector. These remains consist mainly of artifacts and ecofacts but also architectural elements, including stone foundations of a parts warehouse on parts built near the "Jodoin Inn" at the end of the 19th century. More than 2,100 artifacts and ecofacts were collected, of which 320 lithic, ceramic and ecofacts proving that Native groups occupied the Pointe Opémican at two particular periods of prehistory, the Middle Woodland and Laurentian Archaic, and perhaps even continuously for thousands of years. Exotic lithic materials represented in the collection suggest that the occupants came from as far away as the Lowlands of Hudson Bay, the Great Lakes region and Mistassini in Quebec. CFGT-8 site of Pointe Opémican thus represents an important and highly significant site for the Temiscaming region and for all of western Quebec, and this in several respects. Making it an exceptional is its location at the mouth of Lake Temiscaming, on the course of the Ottawa River, at the junction of the lowlands of the Canadian Shield and the Laurentian Plateau, as well as major watersheds Hudson"s Bay and the St. Lawrence. There is no doubt that Pointe Opémican was a strategic location for human settlement for thousands of years until it is used for the timber industry in the late 19th and early 20th century.
Sarah W. Neusius, Beverley A. Smith and Bonnie W. Styles
The Eastern Archaic Faunal Working Group: Database Preservation, Comparability and Integration for Archaic Period Faunal Data
Session 4: Contributed Papers on the Archaeology of Northeastern North America
Sunday Oct. 19 Morning - 09:20-09:40 - Burgundy South
Although it encompasses major portions of the pre-Columbian past, the Archaic period in the North American Eastern Woodlands remains relatively poorly understood when compared with more recent periods. The lighter footprint left by Archaic hunter-gatherers may be partially responsible, but archaeologists have increasingly noted the variability among these Archaic populations. One source of data is the surprisingly rich record of faunal remains resulting from archaeological attention to human-environment interactions as well as from modern recovery methods employed since the middle of twentieth century. The authors of this paper are part of a newly formed Eastern Archaic Faunal Working Group which has brought zooarchaeologists together with funding from the US National Science Foundation.  Our group is seeking to preserve Archaic faunal databases from the interior portions of the Eastern Woodlands in tDAR (the Digital Archaeological Record), an international digital repository for archaeological databases and records of investigations. We also are exploring the comparability of the existing databases by modifying taphonomic and contextual protocols developed by a group of Southwestern zooarchaeologists in order to make them broadly applicable within the Eastern Woodlands.   Ultimately we intend to use the tools available in tDAR to conduct integrative analyses at multiple scales that focus on how to interpret the use of aquatic resources such as fish, freshwater mussels, waterfowl, and aquatic mammals by Archaic hunter-gatherers.  Although the Archaic use of aquatic resources has traditionally been linked to environmental conditions and changes or possibly to human demographic changes, recent arguments have suggested that cultural identity, social interaction, and ritual practices have more to do with variability in this use. Only analyses at local, sub-regional, and regional scales made possible by our creation of a collection of databases in tDAR can approach this kind of synthetic, macro question.
Susan Pfeiffer
New Discoveries about the Lives of Wendat Ancestors
Session 3: Emerging Multi-disciplinary Themes and Trends on the Wendat Past
Sunday Oct. 19 Morning - 08:20-08:40 - Burgundy North
In contexts of new archaeological excavations and of repatriation of curated collections, descendant groups have allowed the retention of one tooth from each ancestor, so that small amounts of tooth root and crown material can be studied. Many researchers have been involved, using new methods of isotope study and ancient DNA. New radiocarbon dates have been generated, so that changes over time can be considered. This paper will provide a summary of new discoveries that have been made possible through study of the teeth. I will describe new, clear isotopic evidence documenting the ancestral Wendat reliance on maize production, and will outline the very diverse sources of protein that were exploited. New evidence also provides information on when mothers weaned their babies and what foods they used in that important transition. I will summarize what we know so far about the genetic relationships of people in the region prior to European arrival and will explain new approaches that get genetic information from dental plaque. The conference is an important opportunity for us to provide research updates, and to learn through discussion what questions the descendants wish to pose to the researchers.
Peter Ramsden
Negotiating Identities: A Story of St. Lawrence Iroquoians and Huron-Wendat in the Upper Trent Valley
Session 1a: The Huron-Wendat Nation and St. Lawrence Iroquoians: Their Origins and Relations
Saturday Oct. 18 Morning - 10:40-11:00 - Burgundy North
The Upper Trent River Valley saw two immigrations of Huron/Wendat people from near the north shore of Lake Ontario.  The first, in the mid-15th century, was by a very small group from the lower reaches of the Trent River who may have been attracted in part by possibilities for trade with Algonquins in the adjacent Canadian Shield.  The second immigration was by a larger group, from the Toronto-Pickering area, over a period of time beginning in the early 16th century.  These immigrants brought with them ties to the St. Lawrence Iroquoians, and there is evidence of visits from St. Lawrence valley people, and later, towards the end of the 16th century, of the adoption of St. Lawrence Iroquoian families into Huron/Wendat communities and households.  This paper explores the evidence for the motives and mechanisms involved in these movements and adoptions.
Jean-François Richard
Territorial Precedence in the Huron-Wendat Oral Tradition in the 18th and 19th Centuries
Session 1b: The Huron-Wendat Nation and St. Lawrence Iroquoians: Their Origins and Relations
Saturday Oct. 18 Afternoon - 03:20-03:40 - Burgundy North
Have members of the Huron-Wendat Nation of the 18th and 19th centuries preserved the memory of "St. Lawrence Iroquoians" which were integrated into their communities over the two previous centuries? Given their own view of history, how did the Huron-Wendat of this historical period conceive of the seniority of their presence in the region of Quebec City? Based on anthropological research on oral tradition now going on at the Nionwentsïo Office, this paper highlights the elements which have been discovered and which point to significant footprints of the "St. Lawrence Iroquoians" in ethnicity and ethno-history of the Huron-Wendat Nation.
Paul Ritchie and John Sleath
Chance of Frost: The Implications of the Mini Ice Age for Maize Crop Development and the Ancestral Huron-Wendat Economy
Session 4: Contributed Papers on the Archaeology of Northeastern North America
Sunday Oct. 19 Morning - 10:00-10:20 - Burgundy South
This paper looks to analyse the effects of the mini Ice Age in relation to maize-based agriculture in southern Ontario. Temperature reconstructions during the mini Ice Age have proposed temperature differences ranging from -0.45° to -2° C. The effects of this forecasted temperature difference will be evaluated for the risk of frost and shortening of the growing season throughout the territory of the ancestral Huron Wendat and the potential impacts on maize crop yields. Preliminary analysis of the distribution pattern of increasing frost risk is shown to correlate with the diachronic settlement patterns of the ancestral Huron-Wendat. Dietary isotope analysis from ancestral Huron-Wendat populations has indicated that maize comprised a significant percentage of the average diet. Maize is also understood to have been a primary exchange commodity of ancestral Huron-Wendat populations. Early frost damage may affect as much as a 40% crop loss, depending on severity. Therefore, any impact to the yield of maize crop production would have significant ramifications to both the subsistence and exchange economies of the ancestral Huron-Wendat. The factor of climate is also therefore tantamount to the discussion of the push- and pull-factors associated with the northward migration of ancestral Huron-Wendat populations as well as coalescence.
William Ross
The Interlakes Composite: A Revisitation
Session 2a: The Legacy of Conrad Heidenreich
Saturday Oct. 18 Morning - 09:00-09:20 - Burgundy South
This paper deals with the initial human settlement of Northwestern Ontario and adjoining northern Minnesota and Eastern Manitoba. It will reexamine the Interlakes Composite as originally described by this author using new and more recent data from the geomorphological, environmental and archaeological fields. In addition, old data will be reexamined and in some cases reinterpreted.
Michael Schillaci, Craig Kopris, Søren Wichmann, and Genevieve Dewar
The use of linguistic data in the study of Northern Iroquoian prehistory
Session 3: Emerging Multi-disciplinary Themes and Trends on the Wendat Past
Sunday Oct. 19 Morning - 11:20-11:40 - Burgundy North
The origin and history of Iroquoian-speaking peoples has received considerable attention by archaeologists interested in matching archaeological cultures with Iroquoian ethnolinguistic identity. Here, we employ a quantitative analysis of lexical data to generate a language tree describing the historical relationships among Iroquoian languages. We use an alternative to glottochronology to estimate the timing of linguistic divergences within the language tree. Our results suggest that the origin of the Huronian languages (Wendat & Wyandot) date to around AD 270. The timing of various language divergences seems to coincide with important events observed in the archaeological record, including the first evidence for the use of corn in New York and Ontario. The development of important Iroquoian cultural attributes such as the longhouse, matrilocal residence, and the intensification of agriculture all coincide with a period which saw most of the internal language divergences within the Northern Iroquoian language family grouping.
John Steckley
St. Lawrence Iroquoians Among the Wendat: The Linguistic Evidence
Session 1a: The Huron-Wendat Nation and St. Lawrence Iroquoians: Their Origins and Relations
Saturday Oct. 18 Morning - 09:00-09:20 - Burgundy North
Several different kinds of linguistic evidence demonstrate conclusively that there were St. Lawrence Iroquoians living with the Wendat in the 1620s.  The primary source of data is the dictionary of words collected by Recollect Brother Gabriel Sagard.  At least one of his informants was a St. Lawrence Iroquoian, most likely a young man named Amantacha.  This is demonstrated by the linguistic forms that appear in the dictionary, and by the geographic orientation of the terms for the different nations referred to there.  But there is addition, more indirect information coming from some of the information gathered by the Jesuit missionaries who lived with the Wendat.
John Steckley
Putting Names to Spaces:  Wendat Words in 17th Century Maps
Session 2a: The Legacy of Conrad Heidenreich
Saturday Oct. 18 Morning - 11:20-11:40 - Burgundy South
There exist a good number of maps of 17th century New France that include names of nations and communities in the Wendat language.  These names have the potential to provide crucial information about the nations and communities so named.  During the 1980s and early 1990s, I wrote a series of 10 articles about such names (Steckley 1984a and b, 1985a and b, 1987a and b, 1990a, b, c and d).  In this paper I will be taking data from those articles, and updating both the data and the analysis.
Amanda Sutton
An Analysis of Documentary Evidence for Wendat Interactions in the St. Lawrence Region, AD 1530-1800
Session 1b: The Huron-Wendat Nation and St. Lawrence Iroquoians: Their Origins and Relations
Saturday Oct. 18 Afternoon - 03:00-03:20 - Burgundy North
The ethnohistoric record indubitably serves as a crucial supplement to the archaeological one, particularly in areas developed before sites could be properly recorded and those on which invasive techniques are not desirable. This is so for many sites in the St. Lawrence River Valley and Quebec City regions, where the Wendat have a deep-seated history of interaction and residence. Examination of European documents and journals dating back to the 16th century may offer affirmation to Wendat ties to the region through their relations with St. Lawrence Iroquoians. Moreover, the Jesuit Relations provide a wealth of insight to the relationships formed in colonial Quebec City between the Wendat and other indigenous groups, including the Abenaki, Algonkian, and Montagnais, that is critical to understanding the Nation’s history and ties to the place. This paper will examine documentary evidence in order to situate and contextualize those relationships within Wendat history.
Alyson Tang
The Conservation Treatment of Iron Artefacts from the HMS General Hunter
Session 5: Posters
Friday Oct. 17 Afternoon - 04:30-06:00 - Burgundy South
In 2004, over 1600 artefacts recovered during the excavation of the HMS General Hunter wreck were sent to the Archaeological Conservation Lab at the Canadian Conservation Institute (CCI) in Ottawa for treatment. Approximately 1500 of the artefacts recovered were composed of iron, with the majority of these being iron fasteners of various sizes. 
During conservation treatment, it was discovered that some of the iron artefacts were contaminated with chlorides, an unexpected complication since the objects were recovered from a freshwater site and assumed to be free of chlorides. The presence of chlorides is extremely damaging to iron, and required conservators to alter their original treatment plan. This poster will outline the treatment process carried out to stabilize the iron objects and the rationale behind conservation treatment decisions made, to preserve these objects for future study and display. 
The wreck of the HMS General Hunter was discovered in 2001 along the shores of Lake Huron in Southampton, Ontario. Built in 1806, the British Naval Brig served as a Provincial Marine Transport Ship, until 1812, when it became part of the British Navy Squadron. Following its capture by the Americans during the “Battle of Lake Erie” in 1813, the ship’s name was shortened to “Hunter” and was used as a transport vessel by the U.S. Army. On August 19, 1816, the ship was travelling from Michilimackinac to Detroit, Michigan when a terrific Lake Huron storm forced the captain to run it ashore and wreck it.
Roland Tremblay, Michel Plourde and Christian Gates St-Pierre
Old and New Hypotheses Regarding the Fate of the St. Lawrence Iroquoians
Session 1a: The Huron-Wendat Nation and St. Lawrence Iroquoians: Their Origins and Relations
Saturday Oct. 18 Morning - 10:20-10:40 - Burgundy North
According to the current archaeological record and the available ethnohistorical data, the St. Lawrence Iroquoians apparently withdrew from the St. Lawrence River Valley at some time during the second half of the XVIth century. This paper will briefly present the various explanations that have been offered to explain the dissolution of this sociopolitical entity, but it will address in more details the hypothetical dispersal routes that may have been followed by the St. Lawrence Iroquoians towards their neighbours, with a particular focus on the eastern portion of the valley.
 
Heather Walder
Unexpected Encounters: Interpreting material culture from the Hanson Site (47-DR-0185), Door County, Wisconsin
Session 3: Emerging Multi-disciplinary Themes and Trends on the Wendat Past
Sunday Oct. 19 Morning - 10:00-10:20 - Burgundy North
This case study presents results of compositional analyses applied to European-made trade items from a mortuary context in the Door Peninsula of Wisconsin as part of a new effort by the Wisconsin Historical Society to clarify the age, demographics, and cultural affiliation of the ancestors. The funerary assemblage was comparable to diaspora sites associated with Huron, Petun, Odawa, and Neutral groups, such as Ossossane, Grimsby, and Lasanen. Non-destructive and minimally-invasive magnification and characterization techniques were applied to distinctive objects such as glass beads and a metallic textile to better understand their origins and identify affiliated historic-era communities with access to similar material culture via trading relationships. Results of glass bead compositional analyses illustrate that the Hanson site individuals had access to beads that were not otherwise available in the area, lending support to a Wyandot diasporic interpretation of the site. A multi-ethnic refugee community also cannot be ruled out.
Caroline Walker
The Champlain Effect
Session 2b: An Overview of the Work of Samuel de Champlain, the French, and the First Nations in Ontario
Saturday Oct. 18 Afternoon - 03:40-04:00 - Burgundy South
Huron tradition recognized ownership of trade routes by the nations that initiated them at Contact. The successes of the English and Dutch in establishing permanent settlements after 1608 convinced Champlain that the French must break the Algonquians’ monopoly on trade westinto today’s Ontario. Champlain’s visit to the Hurons and Petuns (1615-1616) greatly increased trading activity into their territories, particularly trade in copper-based goods. The observed frequencies of copper and brass artefacts immediately after his visit, indicate that the increases inquantities of these goods are statistically significant.
Gary Warrick and Louis Lesage
Discussion of 'The Huron-Wendat Nation and St. Lawrence Iroquoians'
Session 1b: The Huron-Wendat Nation and St. Lawrence Iroquoians: Their Origins and Relations
Saturday Oct. 18 Afternoon - 04:00-04:20 - Burgundy North
Indigenous people have deep cultural roots in ancestral lands. The Huron-Wendat claim to have ancient ties to the St. Lawrence River valley and to Iroquoian-speaking peoples who were living there when first encountered by Europeans in 1534. The papers in this session explore the relationship between Huron-Wendat and St. Lawrence Iroquoians using oral history, historical documents, archaeology, and linguistics. This session is unique in the history of Canadian archaeology and promises to examine archaeological notions of ethnicity and to reconstruct the geopolitical landscape of the 15th and 16th century in the lower Great Lakes- St. Lawrence River region.
Gary Warrick
The Archaeological Verification of the Location of 17th-Century Huron-Wendat Sites
Session 2a: The Legacy of Conrad Heidenreich
Saturday Oct. 18 Morning - 11:00-11:20 - Burgundy South
Conrad Heidenreich dedicated a great part of his academic career to the identification of the geographical location of Huron-Wendat village sites. Archaeological data can verify historical and geographical data on Huron-Wendat village locations. This paper will discuss the importance of knowing the actual location of Huron-Wendat villages occupied in the seventeenth century.
Kevin Williams, Trevor Jennings and Lisa Marie Anselmi
Public Outreach in Western New York: Ground Penetrating Radar as a Tool to Locate Historical Graves
Session 5: Posters
Friday Oct. 17 Afternoon - 04:30-06:00 - Burgundy South
Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a very useful geophysical tool for the detection of subsurface layers and structures. The members of the Earth Sciences and Science Education department and the SUNY Buffalo State Archaeological Field School engaged in two GPR projects in June of 2014 upon request from local cemetery oversight boards. The first project aided parishioners of the Holy Mother of the Rosary Polish National Church at their cemetery in Cheektowaga in their exploration of seven 'open' sections. The second project aided the Oakwood Cemetery Association in Niagara Falls in their effort to explore the adjacent Town of Niagara Falls burial ground. Data from both of the projects yielded evidence of disturbances likely indicating the presence of burials. The results of the projects will be used to mark existing burials and to possibly define any areas of the cemeteries that may be open for future burials.
Ron Williamson
East-West Interaction Among Fifteenth and Sixteenth Century St. Lawrence Iroquoian and North Shore of Lake Ontario Ancestral Wendat Communities
Session 1b: The Huron-Wendat Nation and St. Lawrence Iroquoians: Their Origins and Relations
Saturday Oct. 18 Afternoon - 01:20-01:40 - Burgundy North
As early as the mid-fifteenth century, SLI material culture appeared on north shore of Lake Ontario HW communities. At the mid-fifteenth century Parsons Site, for example, situated today in the city of Toronto, a possible SLI enclave was identified on the basis of a cluster of SLI ceramic vessels.  Other material culture also signals interaction. The presence of discoidal beads made of steatite on some north shore communities and preliminary analyses of sources suggest a Jefferson County or more broadly eastern Ontario origin for the material. Marine shell and walrus ivory artifacts on fifteenth and fourteenth-century Wendat Sites in the Oshawa area also point to east-west exchange patterns along the north shore of Lake Ontario prior to European arrival in historic Wendake. The Oshawa cluster of sites seems to disappear by the late fifteenth century and may have been the long hypothesised north shore community to move to the upper Trent Valley in the early sixteenth century.
Mitsuyoshi Yabe
Public Awareness of Prevailing Website and 3D Virtual Dimensionalization of Fort Frontenac on the Basis of Archaeological Documentations
Session 5: Posters
Friday Oct. 17 Afternoon - 04:30-06:00 - Burgundy South
Public awareness of the prevalence of the consequence for archaeological research meaningfully results in increasing the local residents’ love for a particular region and strengthening the preservation of historic sites. This research aims at virtually dimensionalizing Fort Frontenac in 3D technology on the basis of archaeological documentations and releasing the 3D restoration on a webpage. Residents and tourists visiting a city hall and an information center can enjoy the outcome of archaeological research by experientially visualizing the 2D fort as a 3D restoration on an iPad.
Specifically, this paper is composed of four elements: 3D modeling, web design, iPad usage, and heritage visualization on the basis of the chronological restoration of Fort Frontenac in 1673, 1675, 1680, 1685, and 1688, changing the fort from plain to grand features in the name of His Majesty, the French King. The aim is to use computer graphics design to inform and create an interest in historical visualization by rebuilding Fort Frontenac using 3D modeling and interactive design. The final model was integrated into an interactive website to learn more about the fort’s historic importance.  It is apparent that using computer graphics can save time and money when it comes to historical visualization. Visitors do not have to travel to the actual archaeological buildings and can simply use the Web and an iPad at home to learn about this information virtually. A sophisticated restoration of archaeological buildings will draw viewers into visualizations such as the historical world of Fort Frontenac.  As a result, it allows the viewers to effectively understand the fort’s social system, habits, and historical events.
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